Fitting noisy data

Many baseline correction algorithms were created without considering noise in the experimental data, which can lead to an underestimation of the baseline. This example will show how to reduce this issue by simply smoothing the data before performing baseline correction.

Two algorithms will be compared: modpoly(), which is not suited for noisy data, and imodpoly(), which is a modification of the modpoly algorithm created specifically to address noise.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from scipy.ndimage import uniform_filter1d

from pybaselines import Baseline
from pybaselines.utils import gaussian

x = np.linspace(0, 1000, 1000)
signal = (
    gaussian(x, 9, 100, 12)
    + gaussian(x, 6, 180, 5)
    + gaussian(x, 8, 350, 11)
    + gaussian(x, 15, 400, 18)
    + gaussian(x, 6, 550, 6)
    + gaussian(x, 13, 700, 8)
    + gaussian(x, 9, 800, 9)
    + gaussian(x, 9, 880, 7)
baseline = 5 + 10 * np.exp(-x / 600)
noise = np.random.default_rng(0).normal(0, 0.6, len(x))
y = signal + baseline + noise

baseline_fitter = Baseline(x_data=x)

Smoothing will be performed using a simple 11-point moving average. Other types of smoothing include Savitzky-Golay smoothing, Gaussian smoothing, Whittaker smoothing, or wavelet-based smoothing.

smooth_y = uniform_filter1d(y, 11)

plt.plot(y, label='original data')
plt.plot(smooth_y, label='smoothed data')
plot noisy data

The modpoly fits of both the original data and the smoothed data are shown below. It is clear that the fit for the original data underestimates the baseline due to noise, while the modpoly fit of the smoothed data is much closer to the true baseline.

regular_modpoly = baseline_fitter.modpoly(y, poly_order=3)[0]
smoothed_modpoly = baseline_fitter.modpoly(smooth_y, poly_order=3)[0]
plt.plot(regular_modpoly, label='modpoly')
plt.plot(smoothed_modpoly, '--', label='smoothed modpoly')
plt.plot(baseline, ':', label='true baseline')
plot noisy data

Unlike the modpoly, the imodpoly function fits the noisy data quite well. Smoothing the input has little effect, with both the original and smoothed data producing similar results.

regular_imodpoly = baseline_fitter.imodpoly(y, poly_order=3, num_std=0.7)[0]
smoothed_imodpoly = baseline_fitter.imodpoly(smooth_y, poly_order=3, num_std=0.7)[0]

plt.plot(regular_imodpoly, label='imodpoly')
plt.plot(smoothed_imodpoly, '--', label='smoothed imodpoly')
plt.plot(baseline, ':', label='true baseline')
plot noisy data

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 0.392 seconds)

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